Nuclear power plants are dangerous due to radiation, as well as the need to dispose of nuclear fuel waste. Because of this, a dialogue between cultures is possible and necessary: if cultures were cut off from each other by an impenetrable boundary, they would not even be able to recognize each other as phenomena of the same order, and if they completely coincided , their communication would be meaningless. Therefore, for example, Italian songs are different from Ukrainian ones, but we understand that these are songs that find melody in them, but one that in a unique historical and social situation is not revealed as the melody of another people. Thus, we can conclude that in every real culture there are universal manifestations, which are evaluated as world culture, and the uniqueness and uniqueness of their production and expression, which appears in the outlines of national culture. It is impossible to separate them, just as it is impossible to separate the act of action and the result, but it is not justified to identify them, because at the same time the real aspects of cultural dialogue and human communication are lost. In this regard, in the content of each national culture can be divided into several of its semantic elements: what can be interesting and understandable to every intelligent, culturally interested person is a universal element; what can be of interest and be understood only by those who are immersed in the culture, internally attached to it, is a national element; what may be of interest to a culturally oriented person, but requires certain additional clarifications and justifications, is an element that synthesizes the two previous elements and serves as a basis for cultural dialogue and cultural discussion. Of course, these elements can be distinguished only conditionally, as well as the boundaries between them, but this separation should not be considered artificial: in the real functioning of culture – and it is known to all – some of its objects are widespread internationally, some remain known and understandable only to bearers of a given culture, and some are of overwhelming interest to researchers and culturologists. However, for most people, all these subtleties remain unknown, sometimes incomprehensible, and sometimes fundamentally unacceptable. It is difficult, holistic and concrete to think – it is not easy; it requires both special training and intellectual skills. In most cases, culture is understood and evaluated unilaterally: those people who tend to see in all cultures only a reproduction of a single human nature, often depersonalize culture, deprive it of moments of uniqueness and fundamental irreplaceability; they are sometimes, but not quite rightly, called cosmopolitans, or even internationalists; those who tend to reduce culture only to its unique forms, in fact, isolate cultures and peoples from each other; they are, as usual, called radical nationalists (sometimes chauvinists); those people who see in cultures only the ground for dialogue and communication, tend to deprive culture of its existential foundations; it is a functional or phenomenalistic approach to culture. Considering these aspects of the functioning of culture, it would be worth warning against the unjustified use of those terms that characterize the above positions. First of all, we should distinguish between these positions as ideological, ideological and political. For example, if we consider cosmopolitanism as a worldview, it is impossible not to sympathize with it, because cosmopolitans are those people who feel like children of space, feel their kinship with the basic principles of nature, the world. In this sense, some well-known spiritual mentors of mankind were cosmopolitans (for example, Buddha, Christ). It is another matter when cosmopolitanism appears as an ideological attitude, that is, when it is presented as a social program; then it leads to the artificial smoothing of differences between people and even to social violence. If cosmopolitanism is a characteristic of politics, then it clearly appears to be a dangerous and destructive phenomenon. The same can be said about the other positions given; for example, nationalism as a worldview also cannot fail to evoke respect, because, as usual, it is associated with a deep interest in national culture, history, and folk customs. As an ideological attitude, it is already dangerous because it threatens social confrontation and discord. Politically, it can be justified only in certain periods of historical development of a nation or state. Thus, in real production and social functioning, culture appears as a complex, multi-elemental formation, so it should be understood and comprehended without simplifications. To do this, we need to acquire the skills of holistic concrete thinking, which is especially important when we want to consciously take a justified position in the approach to clarifying the relationship between national cultures and world culture. Global problems of modern civilization. In philosophical and cultural studies, the type of civilization is determined by various characteristics: religious, ethnic or racial characteristics, the peculiarities of interaction with nature. Modern Western civilization is mainly determined by its way of developing the world and is therefore called industrial (or post-industrial). Industrial production is characterized by the widespread use of machinery, both traditional and non-traditional: machines, computer robots. The efficiency of such production is much higher than manual labor, so modern industrial production can not only meet basic human needs, but also create conditions for the successful development of science, education, culture, art, health and, ultimately – for self-development and self-improvement of the person. Industrial civilization is a condition for awareness, proclamation and protection of human rights, the cultivation of individual human identity. But industrial production has brought humanity not only positive benefits. Its disadvantages are that: it made human labor more monotonous, mechanical, often almost devoid lab report writing help online free of color in human individuality. machine production has led to mass injuries, mass deaths due to technical accidents and catastrophes, and the use of technology in war has caused unprecedented casualties during military conflicts. introduction of machines and machine production has led to a significant rationalization of human consciousness, the emergence of a mechanistic worldview, the identification of natural processes and even man with machines of increased complexity. But perhaps the main negative consequence of the industrialization of production was the emergence of the so-called global problems of modern civilization, due to the fact that human technical and production activities on their scale has reached the dimensions of global processes. They are called global precisely because they cover and touch to some extent all of humanity, the entire globe (Latin “globe” – a sphere). In this regard, they can be solved only by all mankind, or at least most of it. Global problems cannot be solved within individual countries or individual regions of the Earth. What are the global problems? First, there are environmental problems, ie problems associated with the violation of human balance due to geological, biochemical processes of the Earth and the biosphere in general. The complex of environmental problems includes: environmental pollution; it is so intense that there are almost no environmentally friendly rivers on Earth today; in addition, not only soils, reservoirs, atmosphere, but also outer space around the planet are polluted; destruction of forests, the green layer of the Earth, due to which there were changes in the water exchange processes of the planet, in the temperature regime on its surface; modern science is concerned about the appearance of the “greenhouse effect” in the Earth’s atmosphere, when as a result of production activities there is an increase in overall temperature: it threatens the melting of polar ice and a significant increase in water levels in the oceans ; reduction of the area of soils suitable for farming as a result of construction of cities, roads, enterprises, soil erosion, etc. The whole set of environmental problems poses real threats to human life. According to preliminary forecasts of some futurologists (forecasting the future) by the middle of the XXI century. humanity can destroy itself as a result of a general environmental catastrophe. Secondly, these are energy problems. It is known that the efficiency of modern production is directly proportional to the level of energy efficiency of labor. But energy production itself is perhaps the most environmentally unsafe: thermal power plants emit thousands of tons of toxic gases and solid dust. Nuclear power plants are dangerous due to radiation, as well as the need to dispose of nuclear fuel waste. Energy is also the most powerful factor in creating the “greenhouse effect”. Attempts to use natural energy sources (solar radiation, wind, tides) are still ineffective. Third, there are the problems associated with chemical production, with the creation of various artificial materials. Without the latter, neither modern production nor modern medicine and computer technology are possible. But artificial materials are not subject to natural disposal, and therefore pose a danger to the environment and human health. Fourth, there are the problems of war and peace caused by the accumulation of weapons of mass destruction, man. Although after the collapse of the USSR and the disappearance of the confrontation between the two world social systems, the threat of a world nuclear war seemed to recede into the background, it did not disappear. No one guarantees humanity protection from nuclear blackmail, political adventurism from certain political regimes, certain criminal groups and even individuals. In addition, such weapons have accumulated so much that their storage is a serious threat, and their destruction is a complex and expensive procedure. Fifth, these are problems related to the overpopulation of certain regions of the Earth (demographic problem). In general, the world’s population is growing at a significant rate. Therefore, there are problems of providing humanity with food, housing, clothing, medical care, problems associated with legal and illegal emigration. In addition, the global problems of modern civilization include those associated with the widespread spread of certain diseases (AIDS, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc.); problems of preserving the cultural heritage of mankind, relations between developed and developing countries, the fight against international terrorism, the drug mafia, etc.